This terpene is known by the following names: citrus peel terpenes, citral, and linalool. This aromatic chemical can be found in plants (including Cannabis sativa) and foodstuffs. Limonene is a natural component of pure essential oils from several citrus fruits, which makes it one of the most plentiful terpenes in nature. Limonene is used in fragrances, cleaning supplies, and as an ingredient in spices after being extracted from orange fruit nectar.
Limonene is frequently assumed to be plentiful in limonene-rich strains, but this isn’t always the case. Look for product that have been lab tested to verify if the strain contains limonene.
Volatile terpenes such as limonene are present in very low amounts in almost all cannabis strains, although they account for 10-30% of the dry weight of most blooms.
High-limonene Cannabis Strains
Limonene levels vary considerably across harvests based on genetics, growing methods, and curing techniques, although some have higher amounts than others. The only way to tell whether your strain has a lot of limonene is to purchase lab-tested samples.
The following well-liked strains have limonene-dominant terpene profiles, according to data from Leafly’s laboratory partners:
- Banana OG
- Berry White
- Black Cherry Soda
- Purple Hindu Kush
- Quantum Kush
- Strawberry Banana
- Tahoe OG
- Wedding Cake
- White Fire OG
Limonene’s Potential Effects and Benefits
Despite its neuroprotective effects, limonene, like other terpenes, is largely unknown in terms of how it works in the brain and body, as well as how much is required to have these effects. Many limonene research thus far have used substantial dosages—many times greater than those present in cannabis. More study on cannabis-derived limonene is needed, but current research suggests some promise for the following uses:
- Elevated mood
- Stress relief
- Antifungal properties
- Antibacterial properties
- May help relieve heartburn and gastric reflux
- Helps to retain other terpenes and chemicals by way of the skin, mucous membranes, and digestive system.
Limonene has also been found to have anti-tumor effects in lab animals. Limonene slowed the growth of skin and mammary tumors in laboratory mice. These studies were continued with a Phase I human clinical trial, which revealed that limonene was somewhat helpful at reducing breast cancer tumor formation for almost a year. Later research revealed that daily limonene consumption suppressed a protein that promotes breast cancer tumor development, suggesting that daily limonene usage may slow the development and spread of breast tumors.
In laboratory research, limonene has been found to cause tumor cell death in lung and brain tumors. Limonene’s effects on breast cancer, on the other hand, necessitate higher dosages than those seen in cannabis alone. It’s unclear whether specific cannabinoids enhance limonene’s anti-cancer effects. There isn’t enough evidence right now to suggest that limonene-rich cannabis products will be beneficial against cancer in humans.
Future Research on Limonene
It’s unclear how limonene works, either. Inhalation of limonene vapour raises serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain, which are connected to anxiety, sadness, and OCD. Is it merely stimulating the olfactory system or also altering brain cells directly? We don’t know yet.
Limonene has no known brain receptors, unlike certain other terpenes such as linalool and b-caryophyllene. Limonene’s targets in the brain and body are unknown, which may prevent users from taking advantage of limonene’s therapeutic effects.
Dosing Considerations for Limonene.
It’s a bit complicated to calculate how much limonene is required, since it depends on a variety of variables, such as the user’s age, health, and other factors. There isn’t enough scientific knowledge right now to establish a limonene dosage range that is appropriate. Before using any natural treatment, double-check the label instructions with your pharmacist or doctor or another healthcare professional.
Limonene’s chemical stability, on the other hand, makes it difficult to study. Only a few preclinical research have been conducted. Limonene is thought to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects.
In 2006, Israeli scientists tested citrus oil in an in vitro experiment. They discovered that a “combination of citrus oil and MgCl2” might be utilized as a natural antibacterial and anti-inflammatory medication.
According to a second in vitro study published in the Journal of Oleo Science, limonene inhibits proinflammatory cytokines. A buildup of proinflammatory cytokines can cause long-term inflammation. “ᴅ-Limonene may be regarded as an anti-inflammatory medication,” the researchers write.
Researchers in China studied the chemical using an animal model of high-fat, diet-induced obesity following reports that it promotes fat accumulation in the liver. Limonene was found to have “use as a dietary supplement for preventing and treating metabolic diseases.”
The Journal of Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine published a 2018 study that found the effects of ᴅ-limonene on “stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats” (SHRsp). Following stroke, ᴅ-limonene was found to lower the “systolic blood pressure in SHRsp rats.” It also prevented memory and cognitive impairment.
Safety and Side Effects
Since 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration has permitted limonene as a safe food additive and flavoring. The chemical’s toxicity was determined to be “slightly low” when researchers examined it. Only one reported negative side effect was skin irritation owing to limonene-infused shampoos, lotions, or sprays infused with the chemical.
Limonene Cannabis Strains for Anxiety, Depression, and Stress Relief.
Limonene is a terpene that may be found in cannabis and nature. The scent of citrus fruit peels is largely composed of limonene, therefore you’re correct in assuming that this terpene takes its name from the lemon. Because to its pleasant aroma, limonene has long been utilized as a fragrance component.
Limonene is biodegradable and non-toxic at low doses. However, higher amounts can cause negative side effects. A gram per kilogram of body weight (about 68 grams of limonene for a 150-pound person) is an excessive amount to ingest. While this is far more than you’d get in cannabis flower or cannabis products, dietary supplements containing limonene are available, so it’s a good idea to consult with your physician before consuming large amounts of limonene on your own.
The precursor to the cannabinoids, geranyl pyrophosphate, is changed into limonene by enzymes in the presence of limonene. After it is made, limonene may be excreted or converted to other cannabis terpenes.
It’s produced by plants to defend themselves against dangerous germs, just like many other terpenes. Its antibacterial and antioxidant properties have been well-documented, but it also has an effect on brain function that scientists are trying to better understand for the treatment of a variety of illnesses—including anxiety and other mental health issues.
The Potential Benefits of Limonene on Anxiety, Depression, and Stress
Limonene ingestion and limonene vapour have been found in mice to decrease anxiety. Limonene appeared to aid in the reduction of compulsive obsessive compulsive disorder-like behavior (OCD) in mice, according to research. However, limonene’s efficacy appears to be strain or type of anxiety test used, suggesting that its anxiolytic effects may operate for some but not others.
Limonene has been shown in animal studies to have antidepressant effects. Limonene’s antidepressant efficacy has not been extensively studied in humans, although one small study of 12 hospitalised persons with depression found encouraging results. According to one small research, limonene vapor inhalation reduced the need for antidepressants in 9 of the patients, normalized stress hormone levels, and improved immune function.
Limonene’s ability to relieve anxiety, sadness, and obsessive-compulsive disorder has yet to be fully understood. Limonene vapor inhalation increases brain serotonin and dopamine levels in areas linked with anxiety, depression, and OCD. At the moment, it’s unknown how limonene raises these neurotransmitter levels. Is it feasible that limonene simply activates the brain’s olfactory system or does it have an impact on brain cells in addition? Future research is required to determine whether there is a mix of both olfactory system activation and cell effect.
Limonene Give Strains a Lemon Aroma
The scent of a strain is determined by the combination of all the terpenes in it. Even if the blend includes numerous terpenes, one Terpene alone will have a distinct fragrance from many other Terpenes combined.
This is something you may touch at certain dispensaries, dubbed “terpene stations,” where you may detect the fragrance of each terpene. nNone of these odors resembles cannabis flower; this is because cannabis contains many terpenes, not just one.
It’s conceivable that knowing the name and even smelling a strain’s fragrance may not be enough to determine its unique terpene profile. Only lab testing can tell you for sure what the terpene profile of a cannabis strain or product is.
Unfortunately, most states do not require cannabis products to be tested for terpene levels, and few companies offer this information on product labels. There are a few cannabis businesses that provide terpene profiles to clients on product labels, but they’re hard to come by. If you want to know the terpene profile of a strain, look for lab-tested terpene profiles on the label of any strains recommended by your budtender.